Newswire: Nigerian claims to defeating Boko Haram are ‘far from true reality’

Nigerian armed forces

July 29, 2019 (GIN) – In Borno State, one of Nigeria’s most conflicted states in the Northeast, few would be celebrating the anniversary of the first outbreak of violence by the Boko Haram fighters whose trail of heartbreak and tragedy weave through the region’s many small towns.

It might have seemed foolhardy for a small village to take on the Boko Haram fighters with knives and hunting guns. But two weeks ago, villagers of the Nganzai area attempted just that. Some 11 Boko Haram fighters reportedly died in the scuffle and 10 AK-47 rifles were captured.

“These people have been stealing from us so we decided to come together because we could no longer wait for an eternity for soldiers to defend us,” said Aji Gaji Mallam, who said he lost four brothers in previous attacks.

But it wasn’t long before Boko Haram fighters came on a reprisal mission in the form of armed men on motorbikes who, witnesses said, roared into the area and attacked a funeral procession, killing at least 65 people, many of them mourners.

In a region devastated by violence, displacement, climate change and the resulting widespread malnutrition, the insurgency has led to tens of thousands of deaths and the displacement of about two million people.

Yet Nigeria’s government and military claim repeatedly that Boko Haram is being subdued, even on the brink of defeat, its hiding places decimated. Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari said he received assurances from the armed forces that the terrorists who committed these killings “will pay a big price for their action”.

“This administration is determined to end the menace of terrorism,” the president said in the statement issued by his spokesman Garba Shehu.

Human rights groups, aid organizations and local Nigerians have long disputed such claims, and attacks have persisted. “People like us who have been operating in the field, we know that what the government is saying is far from the true reality on the ground,” said Ms. Hamsatu Allamin, a human rights advocate who has worked with foreign aid groups.

Meanwhile, spokesman Shehu acknowledged the difficulties faced by Nigeria’s military to defeat Boko Haram. “The honest truth is lack of capacity,” he said.

“I’m not saying a lack of fighting capacity, but lack of capacity In terms of personnel, equipment, in terms of mobility access to react quickly,” he added.

“The Nigerian army, air force and the navy are all evolved in this operation; they are thinly spread on the ground. We do not have enough boots on the ground to pull that area.”

Newswire : Foundations buy Johnson Publishing Company’s extensive photo archives

by Frederick H. Lowe, BlackmansStreet.Today

Covers of Ebony Magazine

A consortium of foundations has purchased the photo archives of Ebony and Jet magazines for $30 million at auction. The sale was announced July 25th
The consortium includes, J. Paul Getty Trust, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Andrew Mellon Foundation and the Ford Foundation. They purchased the photo archives from Chicago-based Johnson Publishing Co. which filed for Chapter bankruptcy protection on April 9, 2019.
The photo archive includes more than 4 million prints, negatives and photographic materials compiled over more than 70 years. Some of the archives will be donated to the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, D.C. for historians and other interested parties to study.
The J. Paul Getty Trust, which is based in Los Angeles, was the lead foundation. “There is no greater repository of the history of the modern African American experience than this archive,” said James Cunco, president of the Trust. ” Saving it and making it available to the public is a great honor and a grave responsibility.”
Lonnie Bunch, founding director of the National Museum of African American History and Culture, said “Ebony and Jet magazine helped shaped our nation’s history, allowing Americans -of all colors–to see the full panorama of the African American experience.” Bunch now is Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

The photos included Coretta Scott King at her husband Martin Luther King Jr.’s funeral service and Emmett Till’s mutilated body in an open casket.
John H. Johnson, a brilliant businessman, entrepreneur and courageous journalist, founded his Chicago-based company with the 1942 publication of Negro Digest, a pocketbook size magazine modeled after Readers Digest. Mr. Johnson wrote about Negro Digest in his biography “Succeeding Against the Odds,” which was co-written by Lerone Bennett Jr., executive editor of Ebony.
Founded by Mr. Johnson in 1951, Ebony was a coffee-table-size monthly magazine with a large circulation of more than 8 million. It featured an abundance of glossy photos.
Jet magazine, a pocket-size weekly also founded in 1951, featured a centerfold of a beautiful black woman wearing a swimsuit. He also founded the short-lived magazine Ebony Man . The company also published Ebony Jr! for children, which was available in print and online.
Some blacks complained about the articles in Ebony and Jet, but I never walked into a black home where one or both publications weren’t prominently displayed on the living room coffee table. This was important because Mr. Johnson had found the key to getting black people to read. When I was growing up, it wasn’t unusual to walk into a black home and not see a newspaper or a book.
Mr. Johnson, however, really understood black men and black women. He knew they suffered mental and physical trauma daily, such as being followed in stories by security guards and stopped for no reason by police.
So Ebony’s covers often featured celebrities on the cover to entice blacks to pick up the the magazine.
As the black community became more militant, and chanting Black Power, the covers reflected that change in attitude.
Ebony and Jet led the white media to discover the black community. When I joined the Chicago Tribune as a reporter in 1973, white reporters and editors told me the Tribune did not cover any news south of Roosevelt Road, which was the black community. When the sale of Ebony’s and Jet’s photo archives was announced, black newspapers and magazines reprinted their stories from the Chicago Tribune.
Johnson Publishing Co. sold Ebony and Jet in 2016 to Clear View Group, a private equity firm, based in Texas but the Johnson Publishing kept the photo archives.

Newswire: All 12 Federal Appropriations Committees adopt Norton’s Minority Ad Spending Measure

By Stacy M. Brown, NNPA Newswire Correspondent
@StacyBrownMedia

Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes-Norton


Beginning later this year when federal agencies submit proposed budgets to one or more of the 12 Appropriations Committees, those requests now must include a line item detailing what they are spending with minority-owned businesses, which include black-, women- and other minority-owned media outlets.
D.C. Democratic Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton told NNPA Newswire on July 26, that each of the 12 federal Appropriations Committees have adopted language from her Government Advertising Equity Accountability Act [HR 2576], which mandates all agencies include in their annual budget request to Congress the amount of money they spend to advertise in minority-owned media outlets.
She said today’s developments mean that her measure doesn’t require further action. “This is exactly what we wanted. This is it, we got it,” Norton said.
“We got all 12 of the Appropriations Committees to include the language and, in October, when the bills take effect, it will be the law and these agencies will have to comply,” she said.
Norton asked for an update on a 2007 GAO report that found, of the $4.3 billion available for advertising contracts, five agencies: the Department of Defense, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of the Interior, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, spent only five percent with minority-owned businesses.
A subsequent 2018 report revealed that, of the approximately $5 billion government agencies spent on advertising contracts, just $50 million went to minority-owned businesses and even considerably less to minority-owned newspaper and media companies owned by African Americans.
“This is important not just for the publications but because those publications reach minorities and women in a way that mainstream publications may not,” Norton said.
“We did this because the federal government is the largest advertiser in the United States and this gives it a special obligation to make sure that it is using advertising dollars fairly and to reach all people in the United States,” said Norton, who has served in the U.S. House since 1991.
At the request of officials from the National Newspaper Publishers Association (Black Press of America) and the National Association of Hispanic Publications, Norton ordered a Government Accountability Office (GAO) examination on the spending on advertising contracts with minority-owned businesses.
Norton began a fight to change that.
She gathered support from other members of Congress and then, in May 2019, she crafted H.R. 2576 and continued to work behind the scenes to find more immediate solutions.
During budget hearings on Capitol Hill, Norton spearheaded a bipartisan effort for the 12 Appropriations Committees to place the language in their spending bills.
President Trump also urged Republicans to pass the budget bills – though, he had not specifically addressed Norton’s measure. By Thursday, 11 of the 12 committees had agreed to include the language with the Department of the Interior being the lone holdout. However, that changed on July 26, when she secured the commitment of the Department of the Interior.
Despite her diligent work, Norton credited minority-owned media with the success of the legislation. “I didn’t just come up with this out of the blue, I credit Dr. Benjamin F. Chavis, Jr. [president and CEO of the National Newspaper Publishers Association], the Black Press of America, and the National Association of Hispanic Publications because they came to see me about this a couple of years ago,” Norton said.
“They came to Congress to seek redress and I met with them, and then, having heard about what looked like a discrepancy, I needed to see if I could document that. So, I asked for the GAO report,” she said.
Although the legislation does not mandate federal agencies to spend specific dollar amounts with minority-owned media companies, Norton said she believes publishers and owners of those publications ultimately will be pleased.
“Of course, I think they will start advertising because this is a big encouragement to do so,” Norton said. “These are federal agencies under the jurisdiction of the appropriations committees, and they have to come before these committees each year to get their money. When they report back on how many dollars they spent with minority-owned and women-owned publications, they will understand that they will have to do just that and whatever they’ve done before they’ll have to strive to do even better,” Norton said.
“Once again the Black Press of America salutes the effective leadership of Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton,” said Chavis. “Her diligence and commitment to diversity, inclusion and economic equity with respect to the Black Press and other minority-owned media across the United States is noteworthy and much appreciated”

Newswire: Donald Trump views people of color as ‘infestations’

He uses the word again in attack on Baltimore and its Black Congressman
By Hazel Trice Edney

Congressman Elijah Cummings

(TriceEdneyWire.com) – President Donald Trump has repeatedly used a form of the word “infested” as he refers to Black and brown people, clearly expressing his view of them as something less than human.
This was the observation of an emotional CNN anchor, who happens to be a Baltimore native, as well as activists, civil rights leaders and the general public in response to Trump’s latest racial insult. This time he was referring to Baltimore Rep. Elijah Cummings, chair of the House Oversight Committee, which has heavily monitored Trump and his administration, including on their treatment of immigrants.
“Cumming’s District is a disgusting rat and rodent infested mess. If he spent more time in Baltimore maybe he could clean up this very dangerous and filthy place…No human being would want to live there,” Trump ranted in an angry tweet Monday morning.
Baltimore-born CNN anchor Victor Blackwell, clearly fed up with Trump’s insults of people of color, issued a live, on the air rebuke, quoting the times the president has used a form of the word, “infested” in descriptions of people of color or where they live:
“Infested: That’s usually reserved for references to rodents and insects, but we’ve seen the president invoke infestation to criticize law makers before. Do you see a pattern here? Just two weeks ago, president Trump attacked four minority Congresswomen: ‘Why don’t they go back to the totally broken and crime-infested places from which they came?’ Reminder: Three of them were born here. All of them are American.’”
Blackwell continued, ‘“Infested’. A week before his inauguration, January 2017, Congressman John Lewis should spend more time fixing and helping his district which is in horrible shape and falling apart; not to mention crime infested. Donald Trump has tweeted more than 43,000 times. He’s insulted thousands of people. Many different types of people. But when he tweets about infestation, it’s about Black and Brown people.
He continued, “Sept. 2014 at the height of an urgent health emergency: ‘Why are we sending thousands of ill-trained soldiers into Ebola-infested areas of Africa. Bring the plague to the U. S.? Obama is so stupid.’”
Finally, “There’s a revolution going on in California. So many sanctuary areas want out to this ridiculous crime-infested and breeding concept,” Blackwell quotes before speaking directly to Trump from his anchors chair.
“The president says about Congressman Cummings’ district (emotional pause) ‘That no human would want to live there. You know who did, Mr. President? I did. From the day I was brought home from the hospital to the day I left for college. And a lot of people I care about still do. There are challenges, no doubt. But people are proud of their community. I don’t want to sound self-righteous, but people get up and go to work there. They care for their families there. They love their children who pledge allegiance to the flag just like people who live in districts of Congressmen who support you, sir. They are Americans too.”
Blackwell wasn’t alone by a long stretch. The President’s latest racist remarks drew ire from Black Republicans and Democrats alike. Trump’s latest tweets comes on the heels of the U. S. House of Representatives’ condemnation of his Twitter attacks on four Congresswomen of color as ‘racist’.
National Action Network’s Al Sharpton, Trump’s fellow New Yorker, in Baltimore for a meeting and press conference that had been planned weeks earlier, blistered the president for his attacks on Cummings and Baltimore.
“Little did I know that Mr. Trump was going to, on the eve of this, attack the Congressman from this city. And not only the congressman, but the people of this city in the most bigoted and racist way,” said Sharpton at the early morning press conference. “He attacked everybody. I know Donald Trump. He is not mature enough to take criticism. He can’t help it. He’s like a child. Somebody says something, he reacts. He’s thin-skinned and not really matured that well.”
Sharpton concluded, “But he has a particular venom for Black and people of color. He doesn’t refer to other opponents or critics as infested. He does not attack their districts. He attacks Nancy Pelosi, he attacks Chuck Schumer, he attacks other Whites. But he never said that their districts or their states are places that no human being wants to live.”
Republican businessman and political operative Elroy Sailor, co-founder, CEO and Managing Partner of the Watts Partners, named for former Republican Congressman J. C. Watts, opened the press conference by describing a partnership in which Sharpton had reached out to the Bank of America to begin discussions on ways to develop Baltimore; especially its housing stock in the wake of the demise of Black homeownership across America. Jimmy Kemp, the son of former Housing Secretary Jack Kemp, also at the press conference, is a leader in the project.
Also, at the press conference, former chair of the Republican National Committee and former Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele, called Baltimore a “wonderful city” and was highly critical of Trump’s remarks.
“Mr. President, your reprehensible comments are like water rolling off of a duck’s back when it comes to this community. It just washes over them. It doesn’t stick to them. It doesn’t stain them,” Steele said. “Let’s walk this community sir. Let’s talk to them face to face. And you’ll begin to realize and appreciate the hard work and the commitment they have made. The resources that they need, you can help with. The energy that they have, you will benefit from.”
Steele pointed out that three million people lost their homes in the 2008 housing crisis and a million were evicted. Their Baltimore meeting had intended on fixing issues that still stem from that crisis. He urged the public to keep their eyes on the potentially powerful outcome of the project and not on Trump’s tweets.
“We got side-tracked, but we should not be distracted,” Steele said. “Because the work that need to be done that will then benefit and flow out in education, in business and health and other things, it matters. It is the time now to do this. That’s why we were gathered here…Don’t get distracted by the Tweet. Don’t get blinded by the noise…You do that, and this all gets lost.”

Hattie Samuels sworn in as new mayor of Boligee

Shown above L t R: newly sworn-in City Councilman James Morrow, Probate Judge Wedgeworth and Mayor of Boligee Hattie Samuels

The Town of Boligee, Alabama is proud to announce that on July 15, 2019, Council member Hattie Samuels was elected by her fellow councilmen and women to fulfill Louis Harpers term as the Mayor of Boligee, Alabama.
Mayor Samuels has served the Town of Boligee as a council woman for approximately 19 years. She most recently has served as Mayor pro tem since Mayor Louis Harpers retirement.
To fill her now vacant seat on the town council, The Boligee City Council elected James Morrow to serve her remaining term which expires in the Spring of 2020. Councilman Morrow has previously served on the Council and we Welcome him back and wish Mayor Samuels much success in her new role!

Four gaming operations in county contribute $307,630 for month of June

Shown above: Bingo Clerk Emma Jackson; Boligee City Councilwoman Ernestine Wade; Dr. Marcia Pugh, CEO of the Greene County Health System; Greene County School Board CSFO Lavanda Blair; Greene County Sheriff Jonathan Benison; Ruth Thomas representing the City of Eutaw; Mayor of Union James Gaines; Lynnette Woods representing the Town of Forkland; Bingo Clerks Minnie Byrd.

On Tuesday, July 23 2019, the Greene County Sheriff Department reported a total distribution of $307, 630 for the month of June 2019 from four licensed bingo gaming operations in the county. According to Sheriff Benison, gaming operations at Green Bingo have been suspended.
The bingo distributions for June are contributed by Greenetrack, Inc., Frontier, River’s Edge and Palace.
The recipients of the monthly distributions from bingo gaming designated by Sheriff Benison in his Bingo Rules and Regulations include the Greene County Commission, the Greene County Sheriff’s Department, the cities of Eutaw, Forkland, Union, Boligee, the Greene County Board of Education and the Greene County Hospital (Health System).
Greenetrack, Inc. gave a total of $67,500 to the following: Greene County Commission, $24,000; Greene County Sheriff’s Department, $9,000; City of Eutaw, $4,500; and the Towns of Forkland, Union and Boligee each, $3,000; Greene County Board of Education, $13,500, the Greene County Health System, $7,500.
Frontier (Dream, Inc.) gave a total of $67,500 to the following: Greene County Commission, $24,000; Greene County Sheriff’s Department, $9,000; City of Eutaw, $4,500; and the Towns of Forkland, Union and Boligee each, $3,000; Greene County Board of Education, $13,500, Greene County Health System, $7,500.
River’s Edge (NNL – Next Level Leaders and TCCTP – Tishabee Community Center Tutorial Program) gave a total of $73,300 to the following: Greene County Commission, $24,000; Greene County Sheriff’s Department, $9,000; City of Eutaw, $4,500; and the Towns of Forkland, Union and Boligee each, $3,000; Greene County Board of Education, $13,500, and the Greene County Health System, $12,050.
Palace (TS Police Support League) gave a total of $99,330 to the following: Greene County Commission, $4,620; Greene County Sheriff’s Department, $36,960; City of Eutaw, $27,720; and the Towns of Forkland, Union and Boligee each, $4,620; Greene County Board of Education, $4,620 and the Greene County Health System, $11,550.

This weekend is 50th anniversary of Greene County Freedom Day – July 29, 1969

Joyce Dasher and Rosie L. Carpenter

Spiver Gordon, President of the Alabama Civil Rights Museum Movement, announced that there will be a two-day program, this coming Saturday and Sunday, July 27 and 28, 2019, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the special election on July 29, 1969, which elected Black officials to the Greene County Commission and School Board.
“This is a two day celebration of 50 years of voting rights, democracy, justice and unity for all people in Greene County, Alabama. We invite everyone, Black and White, Hispanics, Asians and Native peoples from Greene County and around the state and nation to attend. This is a celebration of what is good and positive in Greene County.
This is a celebration of the continuing success and benefits of the 1965 Voting Rights Act to people at the grassroots level in counties and communities across the South and the nation,” said Gordon.
Among the guests and dignitaries coming from far and wide this weekend is Rosie Carpenter. Mrs. Carpenter, who is now in her nineties, lives in Maryland with her daughter Joyce Dasher, who will be accompanying her to the celebration.
Mrs. Carpenter was a courageous teacher in Greene County who stood up and helped to develop the strategies and organize the precincts to elect the first Black officials. As part of the celebration, a monument will be dedicated at the home she shared with her sister, Annie Thomas, where many of the planning and strategy meetings were held that powered the civil rights movement from the 1960’s into the 1990’s.
On Saturday, July 27, 2019 from 9:00 AM to Noon, three historic monuments will be unveiled and dedicated in Eutaw:
• the first monument will be at Carver School, now the Robert H. Young Community Center, to honor students who boycotted schools in 1965 and started the civil rights and voting rights struggles and movement in Greene County.

• the second monument will be in front of the home of Annie Thomas and Rosie Carpenter, on Highway 14, where strategy sessions were held for the civil rights movement from the 1960’s into the 1990’s.
• the third monument will be placed at the Robert Brown Middle School, formerly Greene County High School to honor Black students who integrated the public schools of Greene County in the 1960’s and early 1970’s.
“We hope these monuments will stand for a long time and be a beacon of light for our children and our children’s children, as they travel to and through Greene County. These monuments show the ‘peoples history of our county’ and many names of those living and deceased are on these markers,” said Lester Cotton, 2nd Vice President of the Movement Museum.
On Saturday, July 27, 2019 at 6:00 PM, at the Eutaw Activity Center, there will be a banquet honoring the foot soldiers that participated in the civil rights and voting rights movement of the 1960’s in Greene County. Among the living leaders who participated in the struggle, who have agreed to attend are: Rosie Carpenter (who now lives in Bowie, Maryland), Bill Edwards (Portland, OR), Atty. Sheryl Cashin (daughter of John Cashin from Washington, D. C.) Fred Taylor, Tyrone Brooks, and Dexter Wimbush (Georgia), Wendell H. Paris (Jackson, MS), Judge John England, Hank Sanders, Sen. Bobby Singleton and many other dignitaries.
On Sunday July 28, 2019, at 4:00 PM there will be a Freedom Rally, honoring the fallen Black political leaders of Greene County, at the William M. Branch Courthouse in Eutaw. The rally will be followed by a fish-fry and watermelon eating fellowship meeting on the grounds of the old Courthouse in Eutaw.
“We invite the public including all community and business leaders – Black and White – to attend. This is an opportunity to honor grassroots community leaders who had the courage to believe they could change and make this community a better place to live, work and worship. We have made a half century of progress but with full participation and unity the next fifty years will be easier and more productive for all,” said Gordon.
For more information and to support the Freedom Day 50th anniversary celebration, contact: Spiver Gordon, Alabama Civil Rights Museum Movement, Inc., P. O. Box 385, Eutaw, Alabama 35462; phone 205-372-3446; email: spiverwgordon@hotmail.com.

Newswire: Dr. Patrice Harris sworn-in as the American Medical Association’s first Black female president

By Stacy M. Brown, NNPA Newswire Correspondent
@StacyBrownMedia

Dr. Patrice A. Harris


In June, Dr. Patrice A. Harris, a psychiatrist from Atlanta, was sworn-in as the 174th president of the American Medical Association (AMA). She is the first African-American woman to hold the position.
During her inauguration ceremony in Chicago, Dr. Harris said she plans to implement effective strategies to improve healthcare education and training, combat the crisis surrounding chronic diseases, and eliminate barriers to quality patient care.
She also promised to lead conversations on mental health and diversity in the medical field.
“We face big challenges in health care today, and the decisions we make now will move us forward in a future we help create,” Dr. Harris said in a statement.
“We are no longer at a place where we can tolerate the disparities that plague communities of color, women, and the LGBTQ community. But we are not yet at a place where health equity is achieved in those communities,” she said.
According to her biography on the AMA’s website, Dr. Harris has long been a mentor, role model and an advocate.
She served on the AMA Board of Trustees since 2011, and as chair from 2016 to 2017.
Prior to that, Dr. Harris served in various leadership roles which included task forces on topics like health information technology, payment and delivery reform, and private contracting.
Dr. Harris also held leadership positions with the American Psychiatric Association, the Georgia Psychiatric Physicians Association, the Medical Association of Georgia, and The Big Cities Health Coalition, where she chaired this forum composed of leaders from America’s largest metropolitan health departments.
Growing up in Bluefield, West Virginia, Dr. Harris dreamt of entering medicine at a time when few women of color were encouraged to become physicians, according to her bio.
She spent her formative years at West Virginia University, earning a BA in psychology, an MA in counseling psychology and ultimately, a medical degree in 1992.
It was during this time that her passion for helping children emerged, and she completed her psychiatry residency and fellowships in child and adolescent psychiatry and forensic psychiatry at the Emory University School of Medicine, according to her bio.
“The saying ‘if you can see it, you can believe it’ is true,” Dr. Harris said during her swearing-in ceremony.
“And I hope to be tangible evidence for young girls and young boys and girls from communities of color that you can aspire to be a physician. Not only that, you can aspire to be a leader in organized medicine,”she says.

Newswire : Harvard study: Black men sentenced to longer prison terms after being convicted of the same crimes as white men

By Frederick H. Lowe, Blackman’sStreet

Federal prisoners by race. Source: Federal Bureau of Prison

Republican-appointed judges on the federal bench sentence Black men to longer prison terms compared with white men convicted of the same crime, according to a study by the Harvard Law School.

The report also found that Black judges impose shorter sentences on average than non-Black judges.

However, in Chicago, where the first African-American judge was appointed to federal bench in 1961, there hasn’t been a Black man on the federal bench since 2012, Crain’s Chicago Business reported in January 2016. James Benton Parsons was appointed to bench by President John F. Kennedy.

The study “Judicial Politics and Sentencing Decisions,” reported that the racial disparity in sentencing decisions contributes to the fact that black defendants comprise a disproportionate fraction of the prison population relative to their percentage of the overall population.” The Federal Bureau of Prisons reported Saturday, May 26, that blacks comprised 37.8 percent of the prison population. Blacks comprise 13 percent of the U.S. population.

Over 95 percent of criminal convictions result from guilty pleas. Once a plea deal is reached and accepted by the judge, the judge schedules sentencing.

Black offenders were sentenced to 4.8 months more in prison compared to similar non-black offenders, reported the study of Republican – and Democratic-appointed federal judges.

Prison sentences have grown for federal inmates from 17.9 months in 1988 to 37.5 months in 2012 for violent, property, drug, public order, weapon and immigration crimes, according to Pew Research Center.

In comparison, women offenders receive 12.1 fewer months in prison compared to male offenders. Defendants withchildren are sentenced to longer terms in prison than defendants with fewer dependents.

To arrive at its findings, researchers at Harvard Law School studied the sentencing data of more than 546,916 federal defendants linked to federal judges. Harvard studied defendants sentenced between 1999 and 2015 and they observed the sentencing practices of approximately 1,400 unique judges.

“Male defendants are sentenced to substantially longer time in prison than female defendants even after accounting for arrest offense and criminal history,” the report said.
There are 677 authorized federal judgeships in 94 district courts as of 2017, Harvard reported. Most of the districts have between two and seven authorized judgeships.